Geological, Geographical and Geophysical Evidence
All rocks contain an immense amount of geological, geographical and geophysical evidence which, to the trained eye, has a complex but variable history of formation, metamorphic change, chemical and erosive weathering, climatic influence, biotic activity and metallic worth to tell us. Using the models shown in Figure 3 we now have a platform on which we can piece together this physical evidence so as to locate the ancient poles and equators, distributions of exposed lands, mountains, ice-caps, seas and
shorelines, the distribution, dispersal patterns and extinction histories of flora and fauna, the ancient climatic zones – ranging from polar ice-caps to equatorial zones, and the formation and distribution of metallic and hydrocarbon resources.
Ancient Magnet Poles
The published ancient magnetic pole information (the location of ancient magnetic poles established from measuring the remnant magnetism in iron-rich rocks) in particular provides conclusive evidence in support of Expansion Tectonics. When this magnetic pole data is plotted on Expansion Tectonic models it demonstrates that all pole data plot as diametrically opposed north and south poles for each model.
These models show that the ancient North Pole was located in eastern Mongolia-China throughout the Precambrian and Paleozoic Eras. As the continents slowly migrated south, during subsequent increase in Earth radius, there was an apparent northward polar
wander through Siberia to its present location within the Arctic Ocean. Similarly, the ancient Precambrian and Paleozoic South Pole was located in west central Africa, and, as the continents slowly migrated north, there was an apparent southward polar wander along the South American and West African coastlines to its present location in Antarctica.
The locations of these magnetic poles, as well as the derived ancient equators, independently confirm the model reconstructions shown in Figure 3 and again suggest that Expansion Tectonics is indeed a viable process.
The ancient geography of the Earth forms the basis for defining the inter-relationships of exposed continents, intervening seaways, mountains and crustal movements, and enables the conventional Pangaea, Gondwana, Laurentia, Baltica, Laurussia and Rodinia supercontinents to be quantified on an Expansion Tectonic Earth. The ancient coastlines, when plotted on Expansion Tectonic models, show that large Panthallassa, Tethys and Iapetus Oceans are not required during reconstruction. This is because on an Expansion Tectonic Earth all modern oceans are removed and continents are assembled as a single continental crust. These inferred oceans are instead replaced by smaller Panthallassa, Tethys and Iapetus Seas located on or between the ancient continents.
The early Panthallassa and Iapetus Seas developed during the Early Permian to Early Jurassic periods (260 to 165 million years ago) and initiated as shallow sedimentary basins within the present north west Pacific and North Atlantic Ocean regions respectively. These then progressively opened and extended throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras as the modern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In contrast, the Tethys Sea had its origins during the Early Precambrian Era as a continental sea located within what is
now Europe and Asia. This sea then progressively enlarged and extended in area during the Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras during crustal extension and subsequent opening of the modern oceans.
Changes in sea-level on an Expansion Tectonic Earth is then shown to occur in response to climatic change, as well as a shift in the distribution of continental seas, to crustal movements, mountain building, erosion, opening of the post-Permian modern oceans and production of new water at the mid-ocean-ridges. These changes all modified the ancient coastal outlines and resulted in a change in the exposed continental land areas. This is confirmed by the distribution of climate-dependant sedimentary rocks such as limestone reefs, and the distribution of climate-dependant marine and terrestrial fossil species. Reconstructions of the conventional Pangaea, Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents and smaller sub-continents on an Expansion Tectonic Earth demonstrate that, instead of being the result of random dispersion-amalgamation or collisional events, each continental assemblage is progressive, and represents an evolutionary crustal-forming process. The distinguishing feature of continents constructed on each Expansion Tectonic model is the inter-relationship of continental sedimentary basins, the network of continental seas and network of crustal movements. The variation of each of these in time has resulted in changes to the distribution of exposed continental land. Supercontinent configuration is then defined by a progressive extension of continental sedimentary basins, by ongoing crustal movements, and changes in sea-levels as the modern oceans
opened and rapidly increased in area to the present-day.
On an Expansion Tectonic Earth the locations of fossilized fauna and flora can be used to illustrate their distribution in relation to the ancient lands and seas, and once again to confirm the established climatic zones as well as the poles and equator. The distribution of various marine fauna, such as the Cambrian and Ordovician trilobites for instance, on an Expansion Tectonic Earth demonstrates the ease and simplification of migration routes and their development during the Palaeozoic Era. Barriers to the migration of trilobites, as well as other related species on an Expansion Tectonic Earth are then simply seen as limited to deep marine restrictions and, to a limited extent, on latitude and climate extremes.
Triassic to Cretaceous dinosaurs, when plotted on Expansion Tectonic Earth models show dinosaur distributions are clustered within three distinct provinces, which coincide with the distribution of ancestral Permian reptiles; their ancient ancestors. These include distributions clustered in the European to Mediterranean region, distributions clustered in central and eastern North America and, distributions clustered in adjacent South Africa and southern South American regions, with links to India. Isolated related distributions also occur in east Australia, south China, and western South America.
The distribution of dinosaurs and ancestral Permian reptiles on an Expansion Tectonic Earth demonstrates the close links between Permian, Triassic and Jurassic species. This link was then disrupted during the early Permian during the initiation of continental break-up, and similarly during the Cretaceous as the various seas merged and sea levels began to rise. As the continents progressively broke up and dispersed there was a marked disruption of established climatic zones, as well as the feeding habitats and migration routes of each endemic species.
The extinction of the dinosaurs is a contentious issue. On an Expansion Tectonic Earth the Cretaceous period coincides with a period of enlargement of continental seas accompanied by a rise in sea-level, an increase in the size of the modern oceans and
progressive disruption to climate. Sea levels peaked on the continents during the Late Cretaceous followed by a rapid draining of continental seas as the modern oceans continued to open.
Expansion Tectonic Earth models suggest there may have been two or more separate oceans existing during the Mesozoic era, with the possibility of separate sea levels. Rifting and merging of these oceans coincides precisely with faunal and floral extinction
events at the end of both the Triassic and Cretaceous periods. This suggests the cause of the dinosaur extinction, which incidentally occurred over a period of 8 to 10 million years, may be linked with periods of relatively rapid sea level change some 65 million
years ago, rather than a speculated asteroidal impact event as currently proposed. The ancient Permian Glossopteris fern is a common fossil in coals throughout the southern hemisphere and has traditionally been used to define the ancient Gondwana supercontinent. The known distribution of Glossopteris ferns is centred on localities in South Africa and adjacent India. During the Permian period East Antarctica straddled the
equator adjacent to South Africa, which was surrounded by occurrences of Glossopteris flora in Australia, West Antarctica and India, suggesting Glossopteris flora may have also been extensive beneath the present East Antarctica ice-cap.
The distribution of Permian Glossopteris ferns, when plotted on Expansion Tectonic models, straddles the ancient equator and ranges from high-northern to high-southern latitudes. This suggests Glossopteris ferns were tropical to cool temperate species, confirmed by the fossil evidence, which shows a Gondwana climate commencing with an ice-age and passing through a cold, but wet temperate to warm temperate climate during the Late Paleozoic Era.
These ancient biogeographic examples, while limited, briefly illustrate the ease and simplification of migration and development of all faunal and floral species on an Expansion Tectonic Earth. The inter-relationships of global and provincial distributions are then intimately maintained without the need for complex conventional continental assemblage-dispersal requirements.
During continental break-up and opening of the modern oceans on an Expansion Tectonic Earth, the distributions of species and migration routes were disrupted, forcing species endemic to the various regions to interact, extend their boundaries, fragment or simply become extinct with time. The timing of ocean development in many of these areas is also reflected in the changes in sea-level, facilitating marine faunal migration by extending and expanding immigration routes and moderating climatic differences.
The ancient climate on Expansion Tectonic Earth models can be investigated by plotting the distribution of selected climate-dependant rocks and comparing the distribution patterns with the location of established ancient poles and equators. Correlation of coal swamps, thick sandstone sequences and glacial rocks are excellent indicators of wet climates, while dry climates are indicated by evaporates, such as salt deposits, and equatorial regions by limestone reefs.
The glacial record shows four major glacial eras, including the Early Proterozoic Era, the Late Proterozoic Era, the Early and Late Paleozoic Era and the Late Cenozoic Era. The distribution of glacial deposits on an Expansion Tectonic Earth is also useful in checking
the location of established magnetic poles and equators plotted from magnetic data. The distribution of many of these Precambrian marine glacial deposits, many of which occur in conjunction with equatorial limestone and iron-rich rocks, is an enigma for Plate
Tectonic reconstructions. In contrast, on an Expansion Tectonic Earth the relatively short pole to equator distances existing during this time allowed sea-ice to readily float into equatorial regions, depositing glacial rock debris amongst the existing warm climatic rocks as it melted.
The distribution of Early and Late Paleozoic glacial deposits coincides with a South Pole located in west central Africa, with isolated mountainous ice-centres located in Europe, Australia and South America. A northward shift in climate zonation and an absence of a permanent north polar ice-cap is a prominent feature of glacial, carbonate and coal distributions at that time. This northward shift suggests an Earth rotational axis, inclined to the pole of the ecliptic, was well established by the beginning of the Paleozoic Era and has remained at a similar inclination to the present-day.
The distribution of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic oil and gas resources coincides with the development of major continental and marginal basin settings. A broad zonation of deposits is evident from this distribution which straddles the established ancient equator and extends from low-southern to mid-northern latitudes. This distribution again suggests a northward shift in climatic zonation.
When viewed in context with global and local sea-level changes, oil and gas development coincides with periods of rising sea-levels and maximum surficial areas of continental seas. The Cretaceous in particular coincides with a period of post-Late Paleozoic glacial melting, a rapid opening of the modern oceans, generally warm climatic conditions and rapid biotic diversification.
The Early to Late Cretaceous distribution of coal shows two broad temperate belts located north and south of the ancient equator. On an Expansion Tectonic Earth a latitudinal shift in coal deposition through time is reflected in the rapid opening of each of the modern oceans, and similarly in the northward migration of continents during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. The predominance of coal deposits in the northern hemisphere is here attributed to the greater extent of landmass influencing rainfall and to the extent of remnant continental basins suitable for coal formation.
The distribution of all latitude dependent rocks on Expansion Tectonic Earth models is shown to coincide precisely with the ancient equators established from magnetic pole data. In each case a distinct latitudinal zonation paralleling the palaeoequator is evident,
and a distinct northward shift in climatic zonation consistently suggests that an inclined Earth rotational axis, inclined to the pole of the ecliptic, was well established during the Palaeozoic persisting to the Recent.
When presenting Expansion Tectonics a number of very valid and pertinent questions invariably arise which must be addressed. In doing so, however, it must be remembered Expansion Tectonics is based solely on the best explanation of existing empirical geological evidence. It is not a theory seeking physical support. It is rather a concept proposed which best fits all existing physical geologic data in a much superior manner than does the Plate Tectonic approach. To some extent it’s like a laboratory experiment wherein an unexpected observation is made that is not explained using existing physics. It then begs for extended theoretical models to explain the newly discovered physical facts.
What is causing the Earth to expand?
The entire question as to where the additional mass comes from to explain an increase in Earth radius is a very important core issue to Expansion Tectonics, but a very difficult question to answer. Because the Earth has always been considered the same size since
creation; from either a cosmological or religious point of view, it has not been necessary to ask this question. Because the question has not been asked, or taken seriously, where the additional mass comes from remains speculative.
Since the theory of Earth expansion was first proposed in the late 1890s, five main recurring themes for the cause of Earth expansion have been suggested. These can be summarized as:
1. A pulsating Earth, where cyclic expansion of the Earth is said to have opened the oceans and contractions have caused orogenesis (mountain building). This proposal fails to satisfy exponential expansion, as shown by modern oceanic mapping, and Professor Carey considered the theme to have arisen from the false
misconception that mountain building implies crustal contraction. In addition,Carey saw no compelling evidence for intermittent contractions of the Earth.
2. Meteoric and asteroid accretion. This is currently a popular theory, proposed also to explain some of the various extinction events that have plagued the Earth. It basically says expansion is caused by an accumulation of extraterrestrial debris over time. This theme was rejected by Carey as the primary cause of Earth
expansion, since expansion should then decrease exponentially with time, not increase as shown by the oceanic mapping. Nor does it explain ocean floor spreading, or the distribution of oceanic crust or covering sediments.
3. Constant Earth mass, with phase changes of an originally super-dense core. This was again rejected by Carey as the main cause of Earth expansion because the theme implied too large a surface gravity throughout the Precambrian to Late Paleozoic Eras. A large Precambrian surface gravity was not evident from studies carried out during the 1970s. For a constant Earth mass, density would have also been unacceptably high during the Precambrian.
4. Secular reduction of the universal gravitation constant G. Such a decline of G was said to cause expansion through the release of elastic compressional energy throughout the Earth, and phase changes to lower densities in the mantle. Carey rejected this proposal as the main cause of expansion for three reasons: (a) formerly the surface gravity would have been unacceptably high, (b) the magnitude of expansion is probably too small, and (c) the arguments for such a reduction in G were considered not to indicate an exponential rate of increase in radius.
5. A cosmological cause involving a secular increase in the mass of the Earth. This suggestion remains the most popular theme.
Where the required excess mass came from was considered at length by Professor Carey. Knowing Einstein’s equation E=mc2 implies that matter and energy are inter-convertible.
Matter is therefore the antithesis of energy where matter is created from energy and vise versa. Carey further considered that new mass added to the Earth must appear deep within the core. But, he also considered the ultimate cause of Earth expansion must be sought in the cosmological expansion and complementary generation of new matter processes within the entire Universe.
The proposed causal model for Expansion Tectonics, while still largely speculative, involves an increase in mass by condensation, or segregation of new matter from energy within the Earths core. This new matter accumulates at the core-mantle interface and the increase in volume results in swelling of the mantle. Mantle swell is then manifested in the outer crust as crustal extension and is currently occurring as extension along the midocean-rift zones. Matter generation within the Earths core is seen as an endothermic reaction, which will ultimately result in a decay of matter formation in the core and cessation of expansion with time.
What about the Supercontinents?
On an Expansion Tectonic Earth, prior to the Triassic period, about 200 million years ago, the modern deep oceans did not exist. All continental crust was united to form a single supercontinent called Pangaea, enclosing the entire ancient Earth at about 3,200 kilometres radius – approximately 52% of the present Earth radius. Geographical studies show oceans prior to the Triassic period were then represented by a network of continental seas, with sediments deposited within continental basins masking all evidence of sea floor spreading. Exposed lands and varying coastal outlines prior to this time were similarly represented by the ancient Gondwana, Laurentia, Baltica and Laurussia supercontinents, and prior to that again by the ancient Rodinia supercontinent and smaller sub-continents.
What about the ocean water and atmosphere?
Researchers elsewhere have argued that before the Triassic period a small ancient Earth with a continuous continental crust would be covered by an ocean with an average depth of 6.3 kilometres. If this were the case terrestrial life forms would not have evolved, and continents would have only been exposed to erosion fairly recently in Earth history. This argument assumes that the volume of the ocean waters has been constant throughout geological history. On an Expansion Tectonic Earth the sea floor crust, ocean water and atmosphere all originate from deep within the Earths mantle and have been added to the surface crust at an accelerating rate throughout geological time. This increase in new ocean water and atmosphere is considered to have resulted by a process of mantle outgassing, as a natural response to a decrease in mantle temperature and pressure conditions with time.
What about subduction?
As previously mentioned subduction of crusts beneath continents is an artifact of the basic Plate Tectonic requirement for a static radius Earth. To maintain a Plate Tectonic static radius Earth the new oceanic crusts accumulating along the mid-ocean-spreading ridges must then be continuously disposed of elsewhere, displacing and recycling preexisting crusts into the mantle by subduction. Modern planetary studies have shown this process to be unique to planet Earth, and hence without subduction Plate Tectonics cannot exist.
In Plate Tectonic theory, subduction zones mark sites of convective down welling of the Earths crust as well as part of the upper mantle. Subduction zones are postulated to exist at convergent plate boundaries around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, where oceanic and continental crustal plates converge with other plates and sink below to depths of approximately 100 kilometres, thereby recycling crust, sediment and trapped water into the deep mantle.
On an Expansion Tectonic Earth subduction of between 5,000 to 15,000 kilometres of Pacific oceanic crust beneath North America, for instance, is unnecessary. All subduction-related observational data simply record the crustal interaction between adjoining thick continental crusts, and relatively thin oceanic crusts during ongoing change in surface curvature. As Earth radius increases with time the surface curvature of the Earth flattens, giving rise to crustal interaction and jostling of plates along their margins as they stretch and distort during gravity-induced flattening.
What about mountain building?
In Plate Tectonics it is generally assumed that mountain building results from collision between ancient plates as they randomly move over the Earths surface under the influence of mantle convection currents. Researchers elsewhere have therefore concluded because Earth expansion is a radial process, and hence extensional, the process cannot explain the compression required for mountain building.
While seemingly logical from a Plate Tectonic perspective, it is illogical from an Expansion Tectonic perspective. As the Earth radius increases the continental crust must distort, bend, twist and turn as it continuously flattens and adjusts during change in surface curvature. During this ongoing gravity-induced crustal flattening process compression causes folding of the soft sediments within sedimentary basins, as well as faulting, volcanic intrusion and metamorphism (heating and compression of the rocks). When the continents began to break-up and disperse 200 million years ago, the edges of the newly formed continents then flexed and rose vertically to form the great escarpments and mountain ranges as the interiors collapse during ongoing changing surface curvature. This process is cyclical during ongoing increase in Earth radius, resulting in multiple and overlapping phases of mountain building, planation, sedimentation, uplift and erosion. What about past measurements of Earth radius?
Palaeomagnetic measurements were first used during the 1960s to early 1970s to establish an ancient Earth radius. This information was then used in an attempt to resolve debate once and for all on whether the Earth radius is increasing or not. The outcome of this research was the conclusion that Earth radius is not increasing and this has of course since swayed popular opinion towards Plate Tectonics, without fully appreciating the implications of the outcome.
While the various researchers went to great lengths to present quality data and sound methodology, it should be realized at that time there was very little agreement as to what
a potential Earth expansion may or may not have been. What the researchers failed to comprehend was the significance of magnetic pole locations determined from conventional palaeomagnetic formulae. These are virtual pole locations, not actual locations. Because of this oversight they then made incorrect assumptions regarding application of the ancient latitude and colatitude to determine radius.
When the Expansion Tectonic magnetic pole locations for Africa are correctly used, the palaeomagnetic data, in contrast to published conclusions, conclusively quantify a Triassic Expansion Tectonic Earth radius. This, in conjunction with the diametrically opposed North and South Pole plots, represents definitive proof in support of an expanding Earth.
What about space geodetic measurements?
Space geodetics is modern technology that uses satellites and radio telescopes to routinely measure the dimensions of the Earth and plate motions of the continents to subcentimetre accuracy. During the early 1990s, when enough ground stations were established to form a global network, the global excess in radius was found to be 18 mm/year – i.e. the measurements showed that the Earth was expanding by 18 mm/year. This value was considered to be “extremely high” when compared to expected deglaciation rates during melting of the polar ice-caps, estimated at less than 10 mm/year. The researchers in fact “expected that most … stations will have up-down motions of only a few mm/yr” and went on to recommend the vertical motion be “restricted to zero, because this is closer to the true situation than an average motion of 18 mm/yr”. This recommendation is now reflected in current mathematical solutions to the global radius, where global solutions are effectively constrained to zero.
These recommendations are justified from a constant Earth radius Plate Tectonic perspective. The 18 mm/year excess was considered to be an error in atmospheric correction, so was simply zeroed out. What must be appreciated is that without an acknowledgment of a potential increase in Earth radius NASA had no option but to correct this value to zero, and hence adopt a static Earth radius premise. From an Expansion Tectonic Earth perspective, however, the 18 mm/year excess equates with a present day value of 22 mm/year increase in Earth radius, determined independently from measurements of areas of sea floor spreading.
Expansion Tectonics as a viable scientific fact
Put simply, the process of Expansion Tectonics, from the beginning of geological time to the present can now be accurately constrained. This has never been achieved before and in itself quantifies Expansion Tectonics. By using modern global geological and geophysical data our Earth is shown to have undergone a steady expansion throughout the Precambrian Eras, prior to a rapidly accelerating expansion during the more recent eras, and continental break-up and opening of the modern oceans during the past 200 million years to the present.
With this modern geological and geophysical data we now have the means to accurately quantify an Earth expansion process, making the evidence in favour of expansion very favourable. In order to accept Expansion Tectonics as a viable global tectonic concept, we must, however, be prepared to remove the constant Earth radius premise in order to encourage active research into alternatives too currently accepted global theories.